Begins when a sponsor identifies a need or an opportunity. A concept proposal is created to generate a high-level view of the intended project and determine the goals of the project. The feasibility study and proof of concept are sometimes used to present the project to upper management in an attempt to gain funding. Projects are typically evaluated in three areas of feasibility: economical, operational, and technical.
Develops a project management plan and other planning documents. This provides a basis for acquiring the resources needed to achieve a solution. Planning in software development life cycle involves setting goals, defining targets, establishing schedules, and estimating budgets for an entire project. Furthermore, it is also used as a reference to keep the project on track and to evaluate the progress with the customer.
Analyses user needs and develop user requirements. Create a detailed functional requirements document. The most important task in creating a software product is extracting the requirements or requirements analysis. Customers typically have an abstract idea of what they want as an end result, but not what software should do. Incomplete, ambiguous, or even contradictory requirements are recognized by skilled and experienced consultants and software engineers at this point. Once the general requirements are gleaned from the client, an analysis of the scope of the development should be determined and clearly stated. This is often called a scope document. Certain functionality may be out of scope of the project as a function of cost or as a result of unclear requirements at the start of development.
Specification is the task of precisely describing the software to be written, possibly in a rigorous way. In practice, most successful specifications are written to understand and fine-tune applications that were already well-developed, although safety-critical software systems are often carefully specified prior to application development.
The architecture of a software system or software architecture refers to an abstract representation of that system. Architecture is concerned with making sure the software system will meet the requirements of the product, as well as ensuring that future requirements can be addressed. The architecture step also addresses interfaces between the software system and other software products, as well as the underlying hardware or the host operating system.
Transforms detailed requirements into complete, detailed systems design document. It focuses on how to deliver the required functionality. In systems design functions and operations are described in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams and other documentation. The output of this stage will describe the new system as a collection of modules or subsystems.
Converts a design into a complete information system. It includes acquiring and installing systems environment; creating and testing databases, preparing test case procedures, preparing test files, coding, compiling, refining programs, performing test readiness review and procurement activities.
Includes implementation preparation, implementation of the system into a production environment and resolution of problems identified in the integration and test phase. Modular and subsystem programming code will be accomplished during this stage. This stage is intermingled with the next in that individual modules will need testing before integration to the main project.
Software testing is an integral and important part of the software development process. This part of the process ensures that bugs are recognized as early as possible. The code is tested at various levels in software testing. Unit, system and user acceptance testing are often performed. This is a grey area as many different opinions exist as to what the stages of testing are and how much if any iteration occurs. Iteration is not generally part of the waterfall model, but usually some occurs at this stage.
Types of testing:
Deployment starts after the code is appropriately tested, is approved for release distributed into a production environment. Software Training and Support is important because a large percentage of software projects fail because the developers fail to realize that it doesn’t matter how much time and planning a development team puts into creating software if nobody in an organization ends up using it. People are often resistant to change and avoid venturing into an unfamiliar area, so as a part of the deployment phase, it is very important to have training classes for new clients of your software.
Maintenance and enhancing software to cope with newly discovered problems or new requirements can take far more time than the initial development of the software. It may be necessary to add code that does not fit the original design to correct an unforeseen problem or it may be that a customer is requesting more functionality and code can be added to accommodate their requests. It is during this phase that customer calls come in and you see whether your testing was extensive enough to uncover the problems before customers do.
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